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This is a simplified model of TCP/IP over Ethernet behaviour of a single TCP connection intended to provide insight into throughput limitations of TCP/IP due to network transit latency. In the model, TCP/IP sends the maximum TCP receive window size worth of application data (filling the maximum possible receive buffer), then waits for a single acknowledgement for the entire max. window size burst. The model also assumes that the instant the acknowledgement is sent, the data is emptied from the receive buffer and the entire window size is again fully available.

Analysis assumes no lost data (no retransmits are required, no delay associated with retransmit timer waits & no ACK timer waits); All datagrams sent are maximum size; No allowance for TCP slow start algorithm delay; This results in an upper bound style result. Bear in mind that this simulates the performance of a single application, not an aggregate usage model of multiple simultaneous users on a network. Furthermore, at the upper limit of TCP performance the model assumes that computer hardware and network equipment can sustain the peak TCP allowed data rates.


In Basic TCP, the maximum number of bytes that can be in transit (specified by the TCP receive window size) is limited to 64KB by the 16 bit window size in the TCP header. Often the 64KB value is used to illustrate the maximum theoretical throughput of TCP. This is only partially true. In the early 1990s Van Jacobsen et Al. recognized that higher bandwidths were becoming available and that TCP needed to be updated to support high bandwidth, high latency networks. The work culminated in 1992 with the publication of RFC1323 which specified modifications to TCP to support the high bandwidth, high latency networks. This removed the 64 KB limit, in theory.

In practise, most TCP stacks do not support RFC 1323 extensions and still have a maximum TCP window size on the order of 8 KB. An example is Microsoft TCP/IP v.2.0 used in Windows NT. It has a 8760 Byte maximum receive window. Windows 2000, while supporting RFC 1323 extensions, by default has a maximum receive window of 17520 Bytes. To enable the RFC1323 extensions in Windows 2000, registry entries must be manually adjusted.

   

Select Line Rate : Gigabit Ethernet

   

Custom TCP Receive Window (for best perf. Use even multiples of 1460) : 65536 Bytes

   

Gigabit Ethernet

  

  

  

  

Round Trip Latency (2T)

Maximum User Data Throughput (64KB Window)

Maximum User Data Throughput (WinNT)

Maximum User Data Throughput (Win2K)

Maximum User Data Throughput (Custom)

0.1 mS

803,755 Kbps

403,166 Kbps

565,965 Kbps

803,755 Kbps

0.2 mS

696,915 Kbps

255,931 Kbps

403,166 Kbps

696,915 Kbps

0.4 mS

550,550 Kbps

147,903 Kbps

255,931 Kbps

550,550 Kbps

0.6 mS

454,993 Kbps

104,003 Kbps

187,468 Kbps

454,993 Kbps

0.8 mS

387,702 Kbps

80,199 Kbps

147,903 Kbps

387,702 Kbps

1 mS

337,750 Kbps

65,262 Kbps

122,128 Kbps

337,750 Kbps

2 mS

205,418 Kbps

33,793 Kbps

65,262 Kbps

205,418 Kbps

3 mS

147,591 Kbps

22,799 Kbps

44,528 Kbps

147,591 Kbps

4 mS

115,170 Kbps

17,203 Kbps

33,793 Kbps

115,170 Kbps

5 mS

94,427 Kbps

13,812 Kbps

27,228 Kbps

94,427 Kbps

6 mS

80,016 Kbps

11,538 Kbps

22,799 Kbps

80,016 Kbps

7 mS

69,421 Kbps

9,907 Kbps

19,609 Kbps

69,421 Kbps

8 mS

61,304 Kbps

8,680 Kbps

17,203 Kbps

61,304 Kbps

9 mS

54,886 Kbps

7,723 Kbps

15,322 Kbps

54,886 Kbps

10 mS

49,685 Kbps

6,957 Kbps

13,812 Kbps

49,685 Kbps

20 mS

25,510 Kbps

3,491 Kbps

6,957 Kbps

25,510 Kbps

30 mS

17,160 Kbps

2,330 Kbps

4,649 Kbps

17,160 Kbps

40 mS

12,929 Kbps

1,749 Kbps

3,491 Kbps

12,929 Kbps

50 mS

10,371 Kbps

1,400 Kbps

2,795 Kbps

10,371 Kbps

60 mS

8,658 Kbps

1,167 Kbps

2,330 Kbps

8,658 Kbps

70 mS

7,431 Kbps

1,000 Kbps

1,998 Kbps

7,431 Kbps

80 mS

6,509 Kbps

875 Kbps

1,749 Kbps

6,509 Kbps

90 mS

5,790 Kbps

778 Kbps

1,555 Kbps

5,790 Kbps

100 mS

5,214 Kbps

700 Kbps

1,400 Kbps

5,214 Kbps

110 mS

4,742 Kbps

637 Kbps

1,272 Kbps

4,742 Kbps

120 mS

4,349 Kbps

584 Kbps

1,167 Kbps

4,349 Kbps

130 mS

4,016 Kbps

539 Kbps

1,077 Kbps

4,016 Kbps

140 mS

3,730 Kbps

500 Kbps

1,000 Kbps

3,730 Kbps

150 mS

3,482 Kbps

467 Kbps

933 Kbps

3,482 Kbps

160 mS

3,266 Kbps

438 Kbps

875 Kbps

3,266 Kbps

170 mS

3,074 Kbps

412 Kbps

824 Kbps

3,074 Kbps

180 mS

2,904 Kbps

389 Kbps

778 Kbps

2,904 Kbps

190 mS

2,751 Kbps

369 Kbps

737 Kbps

2,751 Kbps

200 mS

2,614 Kbps

350 Kbps

700 Kbps

2,614 Kbps

210 mS

2,490 Kbps

334 Kbps

667 Kbps

2,490 Kbps

220 mS

2,377 Kbps

318 Kbps

637 Kbps

2,377 Kbps

230 mS

2,274 Kbps

305 Kbps

609 Kbps

2,274 Kbps

240 mS

2,180 Kbps

292 Kbps

584 Kbps

2,180 Kbps

250 mS

2,093 Kbps

280 Kbps

560 Kbps

2,093 Kbps

260 mS

2,012 Kbps

269 Kbps

539 Kbps

2,012 Kbps

270 mS

1,938 Kbps

259 Kbps

519 Kbps

1,938 Kbps

280 mS

1,869 Kbps

250 Kbps

500 Kbps

1,869 Kbps

290 mS

1,804 Kbps

242 Kbps

483 Kbps

1,804 Kbps

300 mS

1,744 Kbps

234 Kbps

467 Kbps

1,744 Kbps

310 mS

1,688 Kbps

226 Kbps

452 Kbps

1,688 Kbps

320 mS

1,636 Kbps

219 Kbps

438 Kbps

1,636 Kbps

330 mS

1,586 Kbps

212 Kbps

425 Kbps

1,586 Kbps

340 mS

1,540 Kbps

206 Kbps

412 Kbps

1,540 Kbps

350 mS

1,496 Kbps

200 Kbps

400 Kbps

1,496 Kbps

360 mS

1,454 Kbps

195 Kbps

389 Kbps

1,454 Kbps

370 mS

1,415 Kbps

189 Kbps

379 Kbps

1,415 Kbps

380 mS

1,378 Kbps

184 Kbps

369 Kbps

1,378 Kbps

390 mS

1,342 Kbps

180 Kbps

359 Kbps

1,342 Kbps

400 mS

1,309 Kbps

175 Kbps

350 Kbps

1,309 Kbps

410 mS

1,277 Kbps

171 Kbps

342 Kbps

1,277 Kbps

420 mS

1,247 Kbps

167 Kbps

334 Kbps

1,247 Kbps

430 mS

1,218 Kbps

163 Kbps

326 Kbps

1,218 Kbps

440 mS

1,190 Kbps

159 Kbps

318 Kbps

1,190 Kbps

450 mS

1,164 Kbps

156 Kbps

311 Kbps

1,164 Kbps

460 mS

1,138 Kbps

152 Kbps

305 Kbps

1,138 Kbps

470 mS

1,114 Kbps

149 Kbps

298 Kbps

1,114 Kbps

480 mS

1,091 Kbps

146 Kbps

292 Kbps

1,091 Kbps

490 mS

1,069 Kbps

143 Kbps

286 Kbps

1,069 Kbps

500 mS

1,047 Kbps

140 Kbps

280 Kbps

1,047 Kbps

   

Data:

Ethernet Frame Size : 1518 Bytes

Ethernet Preamble : 8 Bytes

Interframe Gap : 12 Bytes

Total Inter-Frame Time : 1538 Bytes

Ethernet Overhead : 38 Bytes

Ethernet Data : 1500 Bytes

IP Datagram Overhead : 20 Bytes

TCP Datagram Overhead : 20 Bytes

Maximum User Data per Ethernet Frame : 1460 Bytes


Line Rate

Ethernet 10000000 10000000

Fast Ethernet 100000000 100000000

Gigabit Ethernet 1000000000 1000000000

   

Maximum TCP Receive Window : 65536 Bytes

Maximum Windows NT TCP Receive Window (on Ethernet) : 8760 Bytes

Maximum Windows 2000 TCP Receive Window : 17520 Bytes

   

Application Throughput:

Application Data Size/(Ethernet Serialization Delay + Round Trip Latency)

   

출처 : http://www.babinszki.com/Networking/Max-Ethernet-and-TCP-Throughput.html

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